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7  Prospects
Table of Contents
 Foods derived from genetically modified organisms and detection methods
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9  Literaturverzeichnis


3SR self-sustained sequence replication (trade name)
7S 3' terminator sequence of the alpha-subunit of the soybean beta-conglycinin gene
12:0 ACP acyl-carrier protein (ACP) binding to laurate (12:0)
aad 3''(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase; conveys (bacterial) resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin
accd aminocyclopropane carboxylate deaminase
AccS aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) synthase (e.g. Acc2)
ACNFP Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes
ACP acyl-carrier protein, see 12:0 ACP
AFLP Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism
als acetolactate synthase (sulfonylurea tolerance)
'altered' gene changes in the gene result in changes in amino acid sequence
AMFEP Association of Manufacturers of Fermentation Enzyme Products
ampR ampicillin resistance gene (see bla)
AMV-5'-utr 5' leader sequence of the RNA4 transcript of alfalfa mosaic virus
A. niger Aspergillus niger
APH(3')II aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase ( NptII)
aphIV hygromycin-phosphotransferase
APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
ArabSSU1A small subunit gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana
BAG Bundesamt für Gesundheit (Switzerland)
bar gene coding for a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus; homologoue to pat
barnase ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
barstar specific inhibitor of the barnase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
BATS Centre for Biosafety Research and Assessment of Technology Impacts
BgVV Bundesinstitut für gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin
bla beta-lactamase gene; conveys resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin, ampicillin); from Tn3 (see also ampR)
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis
BXN bromoxinyl-resistance gene (nitrilase) from Klebsiella
Cab22R 5' utr 5' untranslated region from the Cab22R gene from Petunia hybrida
CaMV 35S promoter see P-35S
cat chloramphenicol transacetylase (e.g. from Staphylococcus aureus)
CMV cucumber mosaic virus
CMV-5' utr 5'-untranslated region from CMV RNA3
CMV/WMV2 CP chimaeric CP consisting mainly of WMV2 CP sequences but with the N-terminus of CMV CP
CoPB Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera)
CP viral coat protein
CP4 epsps 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, here from Agrobacterium sp. (strain CP4)
cry &lambda-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis; class of genes providing insect resistance to certain specific insects; the active form of the toxin binds to cells in the insect gut, ultimately leading to cell lysis and insect death
ctp sequence coding for a chloroplast transit peptide (CTP)
CUP1 yeast gene involved in copper resistance
d-P-35S duplicated version of P-35S
d-P-nos duplicated version of P-nos
DMIF-GEN development of methods to identify foods produced by means of genetic engineering (EC project)
docket-# document number (according to www-site:
DOE Department Of The Environment (UK)
dr developmentally regulated
E9 3' 3' sequence of small subunit of rbcS (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) E9 gene (from pea)
e-P-35S enhanced version of P-35S
ECB European corn borer (Lepidoptera)
EPA (US) Environmental Protection Agency
epsps see CP4 epsps
FAC Food Advisory Committee (UK)
FDA (US) Food and Drug Administration
FDHC Food Directorate Health Canada
fwt fresh weight
gent gene isolated from E. coli which conveys resistance to the antibiotic gentamycin
GIBiP Green Industry Biotechnology Platform
Gly, gly Glyphosate (active compound in the herbicide Roundup™); inhibits plant 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), which is essential for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plant cells
GMAC Genetic Manipulation Advisory Committee
GMO genetically modified organism
gox glyphosate oxidoreductase
gus beta-glucuronidase, marker gene
HC Health Canada
HT herbicide tolerant
I9 intron 9 from corn PEPC gene
ID identification number (designated to the approval of a GMO product in a single country)
IR insect resistant
IVS2/IVS6 intron(s) from maize alcohol dehydrogenase 1S gene
K. lactis Kluyveromyces lactis
lacZ beta-galactosidase gene
LCR Ligase Chain Reaction
LMBG Lebensmittel- und Bedarfsgegenständegsetz
LMV 'Lebensmittelverordnung' (ordinance on food stuffs)
M13 gene III gene III of bacteriophage M13
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (UK)
m-HSP70-utr untranslated leader sequence of HSP70 gene from maize
mas 3' terminator from mannopine synthase gene from Agrobacterium
mas 5' promoter from mannopine synthase gene from Agrobacterium
MHW Ministry of Health and Welfare (Japan)
n.d. not detected
nar no approval required
NASBA Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification
nda no data available
NFA National Food Agency (of Denmark)
nptII (neomycin-3'-phosphotransferase) aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase gene from TN5
nos 3' terminator of nopaline synthase gene (from Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
nqda no quantitative data available
ocd ornithine cyclodeaminase gene (Agrobacterium Ti plasmid C58)
ocs 3' octopine synthase gene terminator (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
P-35S (= CaMV 35S promoter) promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus
P-adh1 promoter from yeast alcohol dehydrogenase
P-BcNa promoter from a napin storage protein gene (BcNa1) from Brassica rapa
P-CDPK pollen-specific CDPK (calcium-dependent protein kinase) promoter (from corn)
P-CMoVb see P-FMV
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
P-E8 modified E8 gene promoter from tomatoes; tissue-specific, developmentally regulated
P-EFiαA promoter from elongation factor αA
P-FMV 35S promoter from a modified figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus group)
P-HelSsu Rubisco small subunit promoter (from Helianthus annuus)
P-nos promoter of nopaline synthase gene (from Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
P-PEPC green tissue-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter (from corn)
P-SsuAra ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (= Rubisco) small subunit ats1A promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, (P-SSU1A)
P-TA29 developmentally regulated promoter from anther-specific TA29 gene from Nicotiana tabacum
P-HSP70-utr untranslated leader sequence of Petunia HSP70 gene
pat gene coding for a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase from Streptomyces viridochromogenes; homologoue to bar
pg gene coding for polygalacturonase (PG)
PQ product quality
PRV papaya ringspot virus
Pt, pt phosphinothricin also known as glufosinate ammonium (active compound in the herbicides Basta®, Ignite®, Liberty®, Finale™ and others); inhibits glutamine synthase which is essential for ammonia detoxification in plant cells
PVX-cp potato virus X coat protein gene
Rikilt-dlo State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (the Netherlands)
RKI Robert Koch-Institut (Germany)
Rubisco ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase
S. hygrsoc. Streptomyces hygroscopicus
S. virdoc. Streptomyces viridochromogenes
sam-k S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase
ss seed-specific
ssp sub-species
STA2 yeast gene with starch degrading activity
Su, su sulfonylurea herbicides (are e.g. active compound in the herbicide Staple®) inhibit most variants of aceto lactate synthase (als), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids Isoleucine, leucine and valine
'synthetic' gene modified gene that employs an altered codon usage (not resulting in changes of the amino acid sequence)
T-35S terminator from the 35S gene from the cauliflower mosaic virus
T-BcNa terminator from a napin storage protein gene (BcNa1) from Brassica rapa
T-SSU1A 3' region of small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (here from Glycine max)
tet gene isolated from E. coli and Bacillus cereus which conveys resistance to the antibiotic tetracycline
tfp total fruit protein
tg transgene
Tn transposon
tp total protein
Tr7 3' 3' regulatory region from Agrobacterium tumefaciens of the T-DNA transcript 7
ts tissue-specifc
T-TL-DNA gene 7 TL-DNA gene 7 terminator from A. tumefaciens; (probably identical to Tr7 3')
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
uoh (registration of) use of herbicide (at the EPA); see also nar*
utr untranslated region (non-coding sequence)
VR virus resistant
Western Western analysis, immunoblotting
WMV watermelon mosaic virus
ZYMV zucchini yellow mosaic virus

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